Thursday 1 December 2016

In Search of the Weavers of Khun.

Khun fabrics come in a variety of bright colours and patterns. 
Drive across the countryside in Maharashtra and north Karnataka and you will see beautiful rural women going about their daily work clad in beautiful Ilkal saris and a particular kind of self-designed bordered blouse made of the fabric called Khun, also called Khana in Karnataka.

While I did not get a perfect shot of a traditionally clad woman in a Khun blouse, I have taken this picture from this blog.
This beautiful woman with a big, bold bindi and stunning nose ring, called 'nath' has worn a khun blouse. Photo taken from here.
While my next post will be on the Ilkal sari weavers, in this post I will dwell upon Khun, which has come to be my favourite fabric. My associative memory with Khun has been with the bygone era in Maharashtra, which I haven’t experienced, but which has a particular sanctity seen through my urbanised eyes. Of women clad in bright saris, beautiful Khun blouses, wearing the crescent shaped bindi on their foreheads, bold women comfortable in their own skin.

My cook too wears Khun blouses on a daily basis, and while Pune markets are flooded with Khun fabrics, it is only last year that I decided that I must have Khun as part of my wardrobe. So I went on a Khun rampage and bought some meters of cloth in various colours, and got some sari blouses, crop tops and skirts stitched with them.
Wearing a Khun blouse with a Kalamkari saree for Durga puja.

Wearing a Khun crop top in Badami. Photo by Vaijayanti Chakravarthy.
Given our fast paced city lives, we seldom pause to ponder over the people who have contributed to making a piece of fabric and clothing. Even if the clothes are machine made, there are people who choose the colours, design the cloth, and operate the machines. And in the case of Khun, where it is still pre-dominantly handloom, I couldn’t help wondering about the people who created this beautiful fabric. In all the shops I enquired, the shop owners weren’t sure where it was made, guessing it may be in Kolhapur or in Karnataka. But I wanted a specific lead, so I could go and meet the weavers.

Wearing a Khun skirt and posing with journalist Shefali Vaidya.
Finally, in a seminar I attended, Shefali Vaidya, a noted journalist, who is also a Khun enthusiast told me it’s made in Guledgudda and soon after, a lady at a stall in a handloom exhibition gave me the contact number of the person from whom she sources the fabric.
The lanes of Guledgudda.
I immediately called up another friend, a long-time Khun lover asking if she could accompany me. Tickets were booked, leads were contacted and off we both went in search of Khun.
Sampath Rathi with khun and Ilkal saree. 
We first stopped at the home-cum-office of Sampath Rathi, who is a wholesaler of Khun and Ilkal sarees. His grandfather had migrated from Rajasthan to Guledgudda in 1924 and made this place his home. He has hundreds of weavers who buy the yarn from him and give back ready Khun and sarees and he charges a margin from the weavers. His cotton yarn mainly comes from Hindupur in Andhra Pradesh, silk yarn from Bangalore and artificial silk from Gujarat. So this works well for independent weavers who don’t have to get into logistics, but just buy whichever yarn they want and give him the ready cloth, which he then distributes and sells in various cities. 
You may also like my post on Handloom weavers of Bhujodi.
Khun comes in different materials and colours. 
Khun comes in combinations of silk and cotton, polyester and cotton and artificial silk and cotton. And in innumerable designs, motifs and patterns on the cloth.

A lady weaving Khun. 
I had read one of Shefali Vaidya’s posts, where she mentions that Khun is called so, because ‘khun’ means sugar and this is a fabric worn by women in the sugar cane belts in Maharashtra and Karnataka. Sampath gave me a more technical meaning. He said khun is a unit of measurement. Khun means half a meter, so two Khuns make a meter of cloth. So one roll of Khun cloth has 44 Khuns, i.e, 22 meters.

A hearty lunch at Sampath Rathi's home.
I asked him how old Khun is, when did it start?  In textile history there are stories of weavers migrating to other geographies, to escape oppression of invaders (that’s more likely in India due to the Islamic invasions), or to escape drought or famine, and then combining their own weaves with that of the weaves of the new place and forming a new one. Did anything like that happen with Khun weavers? He had no answer. He said this is the first time that someone had asked him this question and said that it is at least more than a 100 years old, based on general knowledge of the area.

Brothers, Motilal and Ambalal Ghanshyam Shah Chavan.

The dyes arranged on shelves. 

Un-dyed yarn.
What makes Khun unique is that it is the only fabric which is primarily made only for saree blouses, hence the original width of the fabric is 31 inches, although now weavers have increased the width to one meter.
We feasted our eyes on the numerous bright shades of Khun
and Ilkals and also bought some. 

To get this shade, they mixed, 100 gms red and 10 gms yellow. 

Getting ready to dip the yarn in the cauldron filled with dye. 
It was already 1 pm by then. Sampath casually said that after lunch in his home we could go and meet the dyers. I was filled with gratitude. He did not wait till we asked him where we could have lunch. We were just travelers who had stopped by to meet him and buy a few things. Yet, he asked us to join his family for lunch. When I thanked his father, he merely said, ‘Atithi Devo Bhava’, the ancient Indian belief and custom which means, “Treat guests as God”. That’s the spirit of India, which still thrives in the villages and warms my heart.

There it goes.

Wringing the yarn to remove water. 
After a hearty lunch, we visited the house of Motilal and Ambalal Ghanshyam Shah Chavan, brothers who are weavers as well as dyers. On the way to their house, we could hear the clickety-clack of handloom and well as power loom from the houses all around. They were in the process of dyeing yarn with bright red. They are the two out of the only five dyers left in the whole of Guledgudda. Their daughter promptly brought us some tea, and with their limited Hindi, they managed to explain the process of dyeing. Water is heated in a huge cauldron at a temperature of about 40 to 50 degrees Celsius. There were dye powders which are mixed to get the desired shade and colour. When we went they were dyeing a crimson red for which they mixed 10 gms turmeric yellow in 100 gms red dye. Interestingly the colour gets absorbed by the tarn and the water itself remains colorless. 
The steel dryer meant for yarn. 

How the yarn is separated to prevent it from getting entangled. 

Khun being made on a power loom.
The yarn is then hung on a steel rod and then dipped into the coloured water. It takes around 30 minutes for the colour to latch on to the yarn. After half hour, the yarn is squeezed and put in a dryer to quicken the drying. The dried yarn is then neatly combed and gathered together by hand to be used in a handloom or power loom. The Chavan brothers had a power loom running inside the house, so we went and took a look at it. The power loom makes around 20 meters of Khun per day whereas it takes around 15 days to make the same on handloom. That’s another reason why the handloom industry is struggling to survive.
Brothers, Siddharamappa and Jagannatha Mallagi.
We thanked the Chavan brothers and proceeded to our next stop, to meet the Mallagi brothers, both weavers of Khun. Both Siddharamappa and Jagannatha Mallagi have been weaving Khun since their teenage years, having learnt the craft from their father. They, too, didn’t know the history of Khunn and estimated it to be over 200 years old. They have around 6 looms in their house and all family members do weaving. All, except the next generation who have IT jobs in Bangalore. According to the Mallagi brothers, there is no bright future for Khun, as the next young generation migrates to cities in search of better pay and also because weaving is hard work and requires one to master the skill.. There are currently around 4000 weavers of Khun in Guledgudda alone, a huge decline from the 50,000 weavers in the early 2000’s. The average age of the Khun weavers is above 40 years.
Their home-cum-workshop.
I observed them working on the handloom and in the stillness of the house, the rhythmic taps and clacks of the handloom seemed poetic and musical. 
The Mallagis specialize in pure silk Khun and use only natural dyes which are chemical free. Thus, the pricing is relatively higher, since the dyes are sourced from various places. The indigo dye, for example, is grown in Andhra Pradesh, which sends the raw material to Germany, where it is made into powder form and sent back to India. I wondered why there are no factories to do this in India !
The Mallagis weave Khun only in pure silk and use natural dyes. 

Displaying the various colours. 
A skilled weaver weaves around 3 meters a day and Rs 600 per day is the labor charge if they have weavers from outside the family. They manage to weave around 40 meters per month.
Such a lovely colour Khun being woven.
There was such a serene look on the faces of the Mallagi brothers. I asked them if they were happy doing this. They replied saying that weaving is what they have done all their lives and this is what they know, so they are happy. I could sense the contentment too on their faces, as I sipped on the fresh lemonade they offered. Here, too, we bought some meters of fabric and thanked them profusely for their time and hospitality.
I got my pick fresh off the loom :-) 
I was inspired to illustrate my own version of one of Jamini Roy's paintings to represent Maharashtrian women in Ilkal and Khun with the crescent moon bindi and 'nath :-) Here it is. You may visit my art page, Purple Soul. I am taking orders for  prints of this work. Please contact me on for the same. 

My version of Jamini Roy's women in Khun and Ilkal.
I wish more designers take up Khun as a project and convert this beautiful fabric into interesting contemporary wear, which will find a wider audience. While browsing, I found this blog with an interesting take on Khun, in the form of a trouser. 
Khun stitched into a trouser. A brilliant idea:-). Photo take from here.
A friend, Vaijayanti, also a Khun enthusiast, wore a kurta made of Khun during the trip :-)
Kurta made of Khun. 
You may also buy directly from the Mallagis and from Sampath Rathi. Their contact details are given below. For those who are buying from the weavers/artisans for the first time, please DO NOT BARGAIN. I'm assuming others who buy from weavers, would not need that instruction as they would be sensitive to the work of the weavers and artisans and do not bargain over the price. The weavers put in a lot of work and time, not to mention years of expertise in creating a piece of cloth, so let's support them by paying whatever they ask for. You will need to know Hindi, to communicate with them. 

Sampath Rathi: +91- 9448776400
Mallagis: +91- 9008484671

We travelled from Pune to Badami by train, stayed at KSTDC Badami and hired a cab to go to Guledgudda, which is around 30 kms away. We also visited the ancient temple complexes of Pattadakkal, Aihole and Badami which I will be writing about soon. 

Edit 1: September 2019

I received an email from the publication house that manages the Ministry of External Affairs, Govt. of India's magazine called India Perspectives. They wanted to use my photos in the August 2019 issue of the magazine. Here are the pictures. 

Edit 2: February 2021

I received a message from a fashion designer yesterday who is mentioned in the below article and she accused me of using her images without due credits. I explained to her that the publisher has written the article and used my photos with permission (as well as hers). But just to be clear, I have blurred her images and re-uploaded the images which show only my photos clearly. I have also circled my name where the credits are given. The first page of the article is uploaded so that the heading of the article is known. Hope this leaves no room for confusion.

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Friday 18 November 2016

Dreams and Reality

I'm sure each one of us had experienced this at least once. You dream while asleep and the dream feels so real. Say you dream eating a bar of chocolate, and in the dream (a non-physical state), you get the taste of chocolate, you swallow it, you hold it in your hand...everything feels so real. You wake up and realize it was a dream but so vivid and real! We've heard and read about this world being an illusion, and so it is! As I'm typing out this note, what if I'm actually dreaming this. And as you read this, what if it's in your dream!! Just as in one's dream one is aware that one is dreaming, I sometimes just sit quiet and experience the dream and instantly I feel zoned out as if I'm observing my life in 3rd person!!Look at your hands, legs or at the mirror and be aware that it's a dream. How does that feel?

In stressful and conflicting situations, I've experimented consciously to remind myself that I'm dreaming and immediately the stress mitigates. Whenever i try this, in my mind I see myself throwing my head up and laughing at how seriously I've taken these silly situations. In the movie Inception, the concluding scene is my favourite. Leonardo spins the top which is to topple if it is not an illusion, but it goes on spinning signifying that it is a dream state. It's the same with our lives too.

Sometimes I wonder what is Reality? The moment there is duality there is illusion. And the state of non-duality is very difficult to imagine because when you think that itself is an illusion! Earlier people believed that the earth was flat and that the Sun goes around Earth. People those days believed that was reality until scientists who came later gave evidence that it was otherwise. What if whatever we know to be reality now, is not actually real? It really shakes up rigid dogmas and opinions we have about ourselves and others and of everything in general.

I was reading Dr Michael Newton's book "Destiny of Souls", where a woman who was severely abused by her husband on earth,  after death moves on to the spirit world to realize that her husband had taken on the role of the abuser, so she could learn lessons in a pre-arranged contract and they were actually soul mates. What if what appears is not real? What about people we don't get along with or difficult situations which are not what they appear to be? It does change your perspective on just about everything that has happened in history. 

When I was about 6-7 years of age, I had a recurring nightmare. In the dream I would be climbing a flight of stairs and at the top would be a scary looking ghost/person/entity who would be harm/smother me. This dream continued for a few months. One day I decided in the waking state that if that if I had the dream again, I would fight back (in the dream). And yes, this time again I was climbing the stairs and at the top stood that malicious entity. I remember reminding myself in the dream that I have to fight back. So, chanting the Gayatri mantra, I lunged forward at the entity, fought with it and I never had the nightmare again! Somehow the wisdom of that dream is surfacing now. All this is a dream and we have nothing to fear or lose after all! We have tasks to be accomplished, but we mess things up when it take it seriously and for real.

The best thing for me is to sit back and see the dream unfold! :-)

Wednesday 26 October 2016

The Lodhi Garden Tombs

Sheesh Gumbad from a distance.
I had been following the INTACH Delhi FB page for some time, so when we visited Delhi in March this year, I got the opportunity to attend one of their Heritage walks. They conduct walks every weekend and the weekend that we were there, the Lodhi garden walk was scheduled.
Tomb of Mohemmed Shah Sayyid.
During our two and a half years stay in Gurgaon, which is 30 kms from Delhi, we had visited the Lodhi gardens many times and of course seen monuments there, without knowing their significance. This walk totally changed our perspective on what we had seen multiple times but knew little about. 
The chattris on the dome. 
The Cosmic star which connects the dead to Heaven.

Islamic inscriptions on the dome. 

Floral motifs and inscriptions.
The Lodhi garden is spread over 90 acres of undulating lawns, jogging and cycling tracks and lined with beautiful trees and flowering shrubs and plants. But its name derives from the fact that it is home to some of well-known tombs from the Sayyid and more importantly, the Lodhi era, dating back to the 15th century.
The 'kumbh' or pot shaped carving which is very Indian has been incorporated here. 

Graves. The ones with the raised portion are those of men and the protrusion is called 'kalam'. 
Before the Lodhi era was the Sayyid’s era when the Sayyid dynasty ruled the area which was then known as Khairpur village. The Lodhis then ruled over the Punjab region. The Sayyid empire was unstable with a lot of internal conflict. They called the Lodhis to intervene and resolve the issue promising them rewards of land and money, which didn’t come through once the work got done. So the Lodhis decided to take over the Sayyids’ empire as a mark of retaliation and retribution.
The area around the tombs was converted into a landscaped garden in 1936 and was named Lady Willingdon Park, after the wife of the then British Viceroy. It was named Lodhi Garden post-Independence and was re-designed in 1968 by eminent architect, J.A Stein.

Although the garden is primarily dedicated to tombs from the Lodhi dynasty, there is one tomb belonging to Muhammed Shah Sayyid of the Sayyid dynasty. After his death in 1451 AD, the tomb was built by his son, Alauddin Alam Shah. This structure like the other tombs in the garden were made of Delhi quartzite, procured locally. It is a very hard stone, so very minimal chiselling work has been done on that. The quartzite is interspersed with red sand stone on which one finds the more intricate carving and designs.
Bada Gumbad

The decorated dome. 

The intricate stucco work in the mosque.. 

Notice the thick walls. 

The stucco work on the walls. 
Jaya Basera, who conducted the walk, pointed to some interesting aspects of architecture. The Sayyids wanted to send a message to the Hindus, that they have come to India for good and do not intend to leave like the Ghazni and Ghori, who repeatedly plundered India and stole many tons of gold, precious stones and metals. So, although Islam prohibits the representation of any life forms in sculptures and structures, they modified it subtly, to render them as an abstract representation of life forms which the Indians identified with.
Sheesh Gumbad.
The only Sayyid era structure in Lodhi gardens and is the tomb of Muhammed Shah Sayyid. The central main chamber is octagonal with the cenotaph of Muhammed Shah in the middle and surrounded by several other graves. It was customary for a person of importance to be buried in the center of the structure. Also, the difference between the graves for men and women are known by the raised middle vertical portion of the grave for men, also known as kalam. In Islam, it was tradition to bury the body with the head facing towards Mecca, which from India would be to the West. The dome above was made of intricately done stucco work and painted. There are also bands of inscription from the Quran. The structure is circular as opposed to the square structures built by the Lodhis. The central octagonal chamber has in its center the cenotaph of Muhammed Shah surrounded by several other graves. The main entrance to the chamber is from the south. Small chhatris (umbrellas) surround the main dome which lend the building an Indo-Islamic look. The dome is crowned with an inverted lotus shaped structure. The ceiling inside is decorated with carved stucco and has the cosmic star in the centre which is believed to connect the dead to heaven and has several Islamic inscriptions and decorative motifs.
The ceiling in Sheesh Gumbad. 
Next we saw the Bada Gumbad, which means a building with a big (bada) dome (gumbad). It’s the first Lodhi era monument dating back to mid-15th century. It’s a square structure and appears to have 2 stories from the outside. However, when one enters one sees a single chamber with a magnificent high ceiling. The absence of a cenotaph in the building, stylistic differences lend mystery to the purpose of the structure. Some believe that it served as gateway into Khairpur village in the 15th century. Adjacent to the Bada Gumbad is a mosque with a pavilion to the east. It has five arched openings with intricate stucco work of floral and geometric motifs. There is a prayer hall with inscriptions from the Quran on the walls and ceilings.
Sikander Lodhi's tomb. This couple out of the frame would have made it perfect, but I was feeling awkward asking them to move. 
Next to the Bada Gumbad is the Sheesh Gumbad, which means a dome (gumbad) covered with glass/mirrors (sheesh). This is because the dome and parts of the façade were completely covered with coloured glazed tiles which were imported from Persia. But today, with just a few cobalt blue tiles on the façade, one can only imagine the beauty that this building must have been, back then. This structure is again square like all Lodhi era structures and the inner chamber with the cenotaph are decorated with fine stucco work of floral patterns and Quranic inscriptions. There are several graves in the central chamber, possibly of eminent people during Sikander Lodhi’s time.
The walls of the tomb that make it look like a fortress.

Stucco work and glazed coloured tiles inside. 
Further ahead is the tomb of Sikander Lodhi. It’s a walled tomb which makes it look like a fortress of sorts, and is said to be the last prominent Lodhi era monument constructed in Delhi. This tomb is said to be inspired by the tomb of Muhammed Shah, since it is quite similar in appearance excepting the chhatris on top. The inner chamber of the tomb is surrounded by a verandah of arches with carved sandstone brackets. In the chamber inside, there are glazed tile decorations, painted stucco work and a single grave of Sikander Lodhi.
The Athpula or the eight pier bridge.
Our walk ended with the explanation of a fascinating structure- a 16th century eight-pier bridge, east of Sikander Lodhi’s tomb. It was built during Akbar’s reign, to span a tributary of the Yamuna river that probably met the Barahpula nullah further south. This was a part of the river system that drained the south Delhi area and then fed the Yamuna. It’s now called ‘Athpula’, (‘ath’ meaning eight and ‘pul’ meaning bridge) due to the eight piers that support the bridge.  
At the end of the walk, I asked Jaya as to why monuments in Delhi meant only Islamic monuments (Qutab Minar, Humayun’s tomb, Lodhi Garden tombs, etc), and where the Hindu monuments were, because the Islamic invaders came to India in the 9th century. She said that all Hindu monuments were destroyed and razed to the ground by the Islamic invaders, so there is nothing left. She even mentioned that they not only destroyed the Hindu temples, but also transferred entire blocks of stone and pillars to construct their own mosques, in place of the temples. In some structures like the Qutab Minar, one can see stone bricks and columns with Sanskrit inscriptions still intact. The horrors of the Islamic invasion are well known to everyone, but to hear first-hand from a historian about the same and to know that, no single ancient Hindu temple survives in the whole of Delhi, made me sad.
But I couldn’t remain sad for long. I had many things to do in Delhi before I left for Pune, but more of that in the next post. :-)
Notice how wide the bridge is. Maybe this was used by their elephants too to move to the other side. 
Though it was March, we had had a sudden heavy downpour in the morning. Unarmed with umbrellas, we still decided to make the best of the walk, and it was indeed a very informative walk. I would surely like to attend more walks with them. 
You may follow INTACH Delhi on their Facebook page. The fees for the walk was Rs 250.

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